Traditional recipes

San Francisco to Host its First Bacon and Beer Festival August 25

San Francisco to Host its First Bacon and Beer Festival August 25

San Francisco is the newest city to host the Bacon and Beer Festival

The San Francisco Bacon and Beef Festival will be held for the first time this August to raise money for the Sprout Cooking Club.

San Francisco will host the city’s first Bacon and Beer Festival on August 25 at the Fairmont Hotel SF.

The festival will feature more than 45 Bay Area restaurants and breweries. More than 25 local chefs and butchers from establishments including Haven, Nojo, and Fatted Calf will be creating their best bacon dishes from bacon provided by Zoe’s Meats. The beer will come from more than 20 local breweries such as Speakeasy, Knee Deep, and Drake.

All the proceeds from the event will go towards the Sprouts Cooking Club, a local organization that works to teach kids how to cook with the help of real chefs in real restaurants.

The event was originally held in Boston four years ago by Eat Boston. It is coming to the Bay Area in partnership with Bison Organic Beer. The Denver Bacon and Beer Festival started in 2012 and sold out a week before the event. Between the two, almost $100K has been raised for local food related non-profits.

2021 CALIFORNIA JUNE 2021 Food Festivals, Wine & Beer Festivals (see also: 2022 - 2020 - 2019 - 2018 - 2017 - 2016 - 2015)

June , 2021
Annual Art & Wine Festival
Walnut Creek, California
The annual Art and Wine Festival in Walnut Creek has grown from humble beginnings to one of the East Bay’s greatest outdoor festivals, attracting over 80,000 visitors yearly. Free admission and shuttle! Over 100 Wines and beers, plus the popular craft beer garden is back! Two stages of live entertainment. And enjoy a Dixieland Jazz Band while strolling through 200 Arts and Crafts Booths, The kids will have a fantastic time in the Kid Zone. It’s the Walnut Creek Chamber Art and Wine Festival at Heather Farm Park in Walnut Creek. The whole family is sure to have a great time. Attendance: 80,000.

June -, 2021 9th Annual Silicon Valley BBQ Championships
Come out and enjoy a great day filled with Sun, Fun and something for everyone--live bands, classic car show, games and contests, fun zone for kids, beer & wine, and the BEST BBQ that the Silicon Valley has ever tasted!

June -, 2021 California Watermelon Festival
Lake View Terrace, California - SEE AUGUST 28-29, 2021.

June -, 2021 Annual Monterey Wine Festival - Monterey, California
EVENT POSTPONED DUE TO CORONAVIRUS. The Monterey Wine Festival continues to evolve into a platform designed for the regional wine industry and the community of wine lovers. Spirits, Beers, and world class chowders make this a not to be missed gathering. Includes the Annual West Coast Chowder Competition. Guests can sample or buy a cup of chowder, pick their own personal favorites and vote for the people’s choice award. Wines that pair with chowders will also be available to sample. On Sunday the celebration continues with another addition new to the festival - Calamari and Mussels! Throughout the day different seafood’s are released to the guests so that one can receive a beautiful seafood experience alongside an array of international cheeses and charcuterie and more. Along with all these festival ingredients live music is the final sensation that further ensures a ultimate winning combination. Wine, Food, Beer, Spirits, Music!

June -, 2021 102nd Annual Beaumont Cherry Festival
The event celebrates springtime and the Pass Area’s annual cherry harvest and is capped off with a popular parade. Virtually the entire community participates in this four-day celebration, which features games, rides, booths, music, entertainment and a variety of scrumptious food and drink items.

June , 2021 Santa Barbara Wine + Food Festival

June -, 2021 The LA WineFest - Long Beach, California

June , 2021 Tustin Street Fair and Chili Cook-Off - Tustin, California
EVENT POSTPONED DUE TO CORONAVIRUS. The annual event features the Chili Cook-Off, Watermelon Eating Contest, craft booths, non-profit food vendors, entertainment, kids carnival, music and much more.

June , 2021 41st Annual OB Street Fair & Chili Cook-Off
San Diego, California
EVENT POSTPONED TO 2022 DUE TO CORONAVIRUS. The Annual Ocean Beach Street Fair & Chili Cook-Off Festival will offer attendees eclectic fun in the sun that's great for all ages. Join more than 70,000 visitors for tasty festival nosh, art, beahfront entertainment, shopping and more. The Chili Competition will feature more than two dozen tastings from amateur entrants competing for the titles of Hottest Chili, Judges' Award and Grand Prize: People's Choice Award. Attendees of all ages can take part in creating the annual Street Fair Community Mural. Attendance: 70,000.

June 5, 2021 Paws for Rhythm and Brews - Idyllwild, California
Enjoy fine craft beers, an outstanding blues band, a giant BBQ, and a home brew demonstration all while helping raise funds for homeless dogs and cats. This festival will be held in the stunning Idyllwild Nature Center in the cool, pristine mountains of San Jacinto. Home brewers may enter the associated home brew competion. All necessary info for this event may be found on the event website.

June 10-11 & 14-18, 2021 Bio International Convention
San Diego, California

June 12, 2021 Taste of Julian - Julian, California
Taste of Julian is a self-guided culinary tour of participating one-of-a-kind restaurants, wineries, and breweries. Many years have included a free art show featuring original artwork by local artists. FREE PARKING!! In the parking lot on 4th & “B” Street. Tickets are $25.00 per person in advance. Printed receipts for tickets purchased online will be validated when brought to the event at the Julian Town Hall, corner of Hwy 78 & Main Street.

June 12, 2021 Rods & Rails Classic & Perris Potato Festival
Perris, California - EVENT POSTPONED TO A LATER DATE TO BE DETERMINED DUE TO CORONAVIRUS. The Perris Valley Historical Association will hold its annual potato festival at the event including a kid's zone.

June 12, 2021 Wine in the Pines - Pine Mountain Club, California
EVENT CANCELED DUE TO CORONAVIRUS. Mark your calendars for the 2nd Saturday of June each year for Wine in the Pines in Pine Mountain Village. From 1pm to 4 pm (with VIP entry starting at noon), taste exciting wines from throughout California’s top wine-growing regions. If you need a break from fine wines, there will be many craft breweries to choose from. And then there’s the food: some of Kern County’s, Santa Clarita Valley’s, and our own local favorite restaurants will be on hand to serve you everything from classic European finger food and gourmet pizza to good-ole western barbeque. Live music—loud enough to set the mood, but smooth enough not to ruin it. Wine-themed art will also be on display to round out the afternoon.

June 13, 2021 Annual Ojai Wine Festival - Ojai, California

June 19-20, 2021 Annual King of the County BBQ Challenge & Music Festival - Martinez, California

June 20, 2021 11th Annual Vista Strawberry Festival - Vista, California
The Vista Chamber of Commerce is hosting its Annual Vista Strawberry Festival, sponsored by Tri-City Medical Center. Held on the Sunday of Memorial Day Weekend from 6:45 AM - 6:00 PM. This year’s festival will be a day filled with fun, food, multiple entertainment stages, bands, carnival rides and local craft beer in the beer garden, and of course, strawberries! The event will also host over 400 local vendors to showcase their local products to the community. The Strawberry Festival is an entertaining event for all your family and friends that is sure to create new memories. It is a free event to the public, so bring your family and friends and take part in the tradition of Vista! The festival will be held in Historic Downtown Vista, beginning with the early morning Strawberry runs. There are runs for children and all levels of adult runners. If running isn’t your thing, there will also be the Miss Strawberry Pageant, cooking contests, pie eating contests, costume contests, Strawberry Idol, local artists and much more. Attendance: 100,000.

June 22-23, 2021 13th Annual Taste of Little Italy
San Diego, California
Foodies start making plans for Taste of Little Italy. To prepare for new guidance regarding the reopening California, Taste will now be held over two days, Tuesday and Wednesday, from 4 p.m. to 8 p.m. each day. Attendees will be able to take in the summer air while walking through the neighborhood’s 48 square blocks, sampling mouthwatering bites from over 20 culinary gems. Each evening different restaurants will be showcased. A Taste Passport is provided to ticketholders as a guide, listing all participating restaurants, menu offerings and COVID-19 procedures. Upon arrival, attendees will check-in at their scheduled time in the Piazza della Famiglia where they will be given their Taste Passport. Guests will then make their way to each restaurant stop, taking away their “tastes” to enjoy at their leisure. In order to ensure the safest experience for everyone, attendees are asked to maintain proper physical distancing and are required to wear face masks when they aren’t sampling their “taste.” Attendees will also be split into two different time slots each day to more evenly disperse guests during event hours. After visiting every stop on their Taste Passport, guests can eat while they stroll or will be able to enjoy their bites and sips at one of the many open-air piazzas Little Italy has to offer. Tickets are priced at $50 for advance purchase, plus a small service fee, and increase to $55 one week before the event. A portion of every ticket sold goes directly back to the restaurants to provide some financial relief from the hardships they have suffered due to COVID-19. Visit the website ffor a full list of participating restaurants and to purchase your tickets to the 13th Annual Taste of Little Italy.

June 24-25, 2021 30th Annual Arcata Bay Oyster Festival
Arcata, California
THIS WILL BE A VIRTUAL EVENT. SEE WEBSITE FOR DETAILS. More than 70% of the fresh oysters consumed in California are grown in 450 acres of Arcata Bay. June is a peak month for oyster harvests in Humboldt County. Arcata Main Street's Oyster Festival has become a tradition for local restaurateurs, executive chefs, and caterers to show off their culinary skills by preparing oysters in every imaginable way. Attendance: 12,000+

June 24-26, 2021 United Fresh 2021 Convention & Expo
Los Angeles, California
United Fresh Produce Association Show. Produce industry leaders will gather for our annual convention and exposition featuring our annual trade show, general sessions and market segment specific education. In addition, our trade show will feature innovative fresh produce marketers and industry leading tools and technology for the fresh produce processing and packing industries, as well as a food safety pavilion featuring industry salutations and our popular business suites for driving valuable conversations right on the show floor.

June 24-27, 2021 Placer County Fair - Roseville, California
With the completed renovations to the fairgrounds, the Grounds has been transformed into a gem located right in the heart of Roseville. We couldn’t think of a better theme for this year’s fair that truly highlights all of the amazing things we have planned for @the Grounds and the upcoming fair.

Bacon Tourism: From the Davos of Bacon to Bacon Mecca

America's love for bacon has reached a fever pitch in the past few years and now, this bacon mania has spawned a new trend: Bacon tourism. You can pretty much eat your way across America all year long, from one sizzling bacon festival to another!

One of the most famous festivals is the Blue Ribbon Bacon Festivalin Iowa, which is the top pork-producing state in the U.S., carries 29 percent of the U.S. market share and has six times the number of pigs as people. Now in its sixth year, the festival has grown from a small gathering of bacon-loving friends at a cabin in northwest Iowa to a mega-festival: More than 10,000 bacon enthusiasts are expected to attend the next one in April 2013 and consume more than 12,000 pounds of bacon!

The festival features 10 different types of bacon, plus all things bacon — bacon sausage, bacon meatballs, bacon doughnuts, bacon butterscotch cupcakes — even a walking slab of bacon! There’s a bacon-eating contest, bacon lectures and a bacon song contest — and yes, there’s a crowning of the Bacon Queen! Contestants are asked questions like their favorite memory of bacon, their favorite kind of bacon and their favorite way to cook bacon (the most common answer is “naked,” incidentally).

“We have people come from 30 different states!” said Brooks Reynolds, chairman of the Iowa Bacon Board and one of the co-founders of the Blue Ribbon Bacon Festival. “People know it’s a good time, that they’ll enjoy some great high-quality bacon and taste things they’ve never tasted before,” he said. “In Iowa, we raise the most hogs and have some of the best artisanal bacon around.”

Jason Mosley, author of the “Mr. Bacon Pants” blog and co-host of the “Bacon Live” podcast has describe the Blue Ribbon festival as the “Mecca of All Bacon Festivals.”

If you’re still wondering why you would travel to Iowa for bacon, four words: bacon-wrapped tater tots. Served at the High Life Loungein Des Moines, the tots are stuffed with a jalapeno pepper, wrapped in bacon, fried and topped with cheddar-jack cheese. And at the Iowa State Fair, they’ve got a Bacon-on-a-Stick stand — a 3/8-inch thick piece of applewood smoked bacon that can be dipped in chocolate or maple syrup.

At a bacon festival, there’s also the chance to mix with bacon royalty like Heather Lauer, author of the “Bacon Unwrapped” blog and the book “Bacon: A Love Story.”

“I have indeed traveled for bacon many times!” Lauer said. “My favorite part of writing the book was the 10 days I spent driving through rural Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota, meeting with bacon curers and hog farmers.”

They “gladly gave me tours of their facilities, whether it was a small brick building in a backyard where the family has been curing bacon for a century or a major facility with state-of-the-art equipment,” Lauer said. “Most people wouldn’t think of spending their vacation time driving through this part of the United States, but any serious bacon aficionado should consider the pilgrimage!”

If you’re going to do a bacon road trip, though, Lauer has a tip: Bring a lot of coolers!

“I had to buy more coolers along the way to store all the bacon I had purchased — I just couldn’t resist stocking up at each stop because the bacon was so good,” Lauer said, adding: “The most important feature of the hotel rooms along the way was whether or not they had a refrigerator!”

One of Lauer’s favorite types of bacon: wild boar bacon.

Did you even know there was such a thing?!

“Wild boar bacon has all of the attributes that make bacon so popular — salty and sweet flavors absorbed by a perfect balance of meat and fat. It also has a certain gaminess to it that appeals to some deep primal instinct,” Lauer writes in “Bacon: A Love Story.”

“The worst thing about wild boar bacon is that it comes pretty close to ruining all other bacons for anyone who tries it — this stuff is amazing, and it’s unfortunate that it’s not more widely available,” Lauer writes.

She favors D’Artagnan wild boar bacon when she makes bacon-wrapped tots at home.

For those bacon lovers who can’t wait until next April for the Iowa festival, the Blue Ribbon festival is going on tour this summer, hitting Keystone, Colo., June 22-24 Reykjavik, Iceland August 22 to 27 and Charlotte, N.C. on September 22.

North Carolina — that makes sense. They’re the second-largest pork-producing state after Iowa, with 14 percent of the market share. But, um, Iceland?

Brooks Reynolds, one of the founders of the Blue Ribbon Bacon Festival who is a commercial insurance broker but prefers the title Chairman of the Iowa Bacon Board, said he and his bacon-loving co-founders have a few friends in Reykjavik and decided to take their festival there. It was a little less grand than the Iowa festival the first time they did it.

“We did it kind of like a flash-mob festival,” Reynolds said. “We got there Friday morning and by the afternoon, we were grilling in downtown Reykjavik in the street, serving up 100 pounds of bacon and 10 cases of Viking beer!”

In Iceland, the bacon is slightly different — it’s very thin and cooked like a rasher, English-style — so it’s more rare and not as crisp as American-style bacon. Also, the cure isn’t as strong because they don’t have a lot of fruit wood like applewood or cherrywood to smoke it with.

“There aren’t a lot of hogs in Iceland!” Reynolds said, but added that he had one of the craziest bacon things he ever ate in Iceland — bacon-wrapped whale! He said the whale was pretty good — not a lot of blubber, as you might expect, but rather straight meat like swordfish or tuna steak.

Reynolds and his other Blue Ribbon co-founders were so inspired by their porcine adventures in Iceland, they’ve decided this year’s Blue Ribbon Bacon Festival in Iowa will have a Viking theme.

The key to bacon’s appeal is that it can be used so many ways, Reynolds said, though he admits, his favorite way to eat bacon is a BLT made by his mom with backyard tomatoes and one of his dad’s famous chocolate malts.

“People seem to come back to bacon,” Reynolds said. “A few vegetarians I know will make a one-day exception for it during the Blue Ribbon Bacon Festival,” he said.

“It’s just a fun thing to eat that brings a lot of people back to their childhood of having their parents or grandparents cook it up for them for a special meal,” he said. “My father griddles up a pound of bacon and then cooks Swedish pancakes in the grease.”

If all this bacon talk is making you hungry, you can travel for the bacon — or wait for it to come to you. Here are a sampling of some of America’s porcine celebrations:

BaconFest Milwaukee(February). They go whole hog in Milwaukee, holding their BaconFest at the Harley-Davidson Museum. Features bacon cooking demos, bacon products and all kinds of bacon eating. Vroom vroom!

BaconFest Atlanta (March). This one-day festival at Dad’s Garagetheater features “three of the essential B’s” — beers, bands and bacon! Three types of passes for this festival at graduating price points: portioned porking, bottomless bacon and whole hog!

Hormel Bacon Takedown Tour (March to October). Hormel is doing a nationwide Bacon Takedown Tour, where 20 local chefs accept the challenge of cooking recipes with Hormel Black Label bacon for 200 to 300 people. Here’s the schedule: Austin (March 11), Denver (April 22), Boston (June 24), San Francisco (July 15), Chicago (Sept. 16), Brooklyn (Oct. 14). Past bacon delicacies include bacon wontons, nacho bacon and pineapple bacon bombs. Oh, it’s on!

Boston Bacon Beer Festival (April). Features all kinds of crazy bacon creations including pretzel-coated bacon, bacon cotton candy, caramel bacon popsicles, bacon guacamole, pork belly pissaladiera, lamb bacon, beer-braised bacon meatballs, bacon cheesecake and a bacon ice cream float with bacon jimmies. Plus, a bacon and beer harbor cruise and a bacon- and beer-inspired art show.

BaconFest Chicago (April). This festival is a more upscale, white-tablecloth event, featuring bacon-infused dishes such as bacon-chile gulab jamun topped with bacon-pistachio brittle, bacon beignets and New Orleans-style sweet cayenne bacon bread pudding with coconut praline sauce, topped with sweet cayenne bacon crumbles, and bacon kimchi mortadella with pickle aioli and bacon tater tots.

Blue Ribbon Bacon Tour, Keystone, Colorado (June). Features a four-course bacon dinner at Wolf Rock Restaurant in the River Run Village in Keystone. Then there are two bacon-filled days with live music bacon samplings a large variety of bacon-themed menu items, including bacon pizza, bacon crepes, bacon soba noodles and bacon chocolate bacon-themed lectures and more.

Zingerman’s Camp Bacon (June). Billed as the “Davos of Bacon,” this four-day bacon camp at Zingerman’s Roadhouse in Ann Arbor, Mich., features a Bacon Ball and presentations on everything from sustainable hog farming and pork curing to bacon history in Hungary, bacon eating and cooking in Asia, and “Hog Raising in the Middle East Before Mohammed.” Davos, indeed!

BaconFest KC (August). Kansas City whoops it up for bacon with a bacon-eating contest, the best bacon recipe contest and the best bacon/pork-themed T-shirt.

BaconCamp Columbus (August). Columbus, Ohio celebrates bacon with a bacon throwdown — a bacon-cooking contest with three categories: sweet, savory and facon (fake bacon) — a homemade bacon contest and a bacon art/craft competition.

Portland BaconFest (August). Portland, Oregon, takes its porcine party to the streets, with a Saturday bacon festival featuring over 900 pounds of bacon. Includes live bands to get the crowd ready for the bacon toss, wacky bacon eating contest, giant bacon twister, greasy bacon foot challenge, bacon dance off and bacon art wall.

Blue Ribbon Bacon Tour in Reykjavik, Iceland (August). Features a bacon-themed dinner and all-day Blue Ribbon bacon and beer event. Local delicacies include fermented shark, lobster soup, puffin, cod cheeks and more stuff that goes great with bacon.

Knoxville BaconFest (September). Bacon in the house in Knoxville, Tenn.! Features a Swine & Dine meal from two well-known chefs, tips for baking with bacon, a smokehouse discussion, a bacon cookoff, and more.

Carolina Bacon Festival presented by the Blue Ribbon Bacon Tour in Charlotte. Will showcase bacon varieties from the Southeastern U.S. and Midwest along with a wide variety of southern-inspired bacon menu items. There will be a bacon-themed dinner created by Chef Joe Kindred of Rooster's Wood-Fired Kitchen. You’d expect no less from the second-largest pork-producing state!

Bacon Bash (September). Thrown by Mr. Bacon Pants himself, this event takes place at Pittsburgh’s Harris Grill and features all kinds of bacon delicacies including bacon pierogies, bacon sushi, bacon shot glasses, bacon gelato and more. Plus, a bacon-eating contest.

As Charles Lamb said in "Dissertation Upon Roast Pig": "Pig — let me speak his praise — is no less provocative of the appetite, than he is satisfactory to the criticalness of the censorious palate. The strong man may batten on him, and the weakling refuseth not his mild juices."

Festivals in the San Francisco Bay Area

About the Bay Area

From the 1960s hippie counterculture to the innovative tech scene, San Francisco's Bay Area has always been a hotbed of new ideas, diversity, and inspired arts. Rife with sporting events, celebrated wine countries, a cutting-edge music scene, and world-class cuisine, the Bay Area plays host to an eclectic lineup of festivals year-round. From laugh-out-loud comedy festivals like SF Sketchfest, to massive block parties like the Folsom Street Fair, the SF Bay Area has something for every kind of festival-goer.

While there are certainly hundreds of thousands of festivals to explore in the Bay Area, we&rsquove narrowed it down to our favorite festivals. These Bay Area festivals are our baes, and many are winners of our Fest300 List, so you know you&rsquoll have a good time! Check them out below.

The Best Bay Area Festivals

The music, food, and venue together make Outside Lands Music and Arts Festival one of the leading music festivals in the Bay Area. Held annually on the western side of San Francisco&rsquos Golden Gate Park, Outside Lands draws in massive crowds with its incredible lineup. Notable past acts have included Metallica, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar, Radiohead, Zedd, Lana del Rey, and Porter Robinson (just to name a few). Spread across four primary stages, this diverse, stacked lineup has something for almost everyone. Plus, attendees can enjoy delicious grub from some of San Francisco&rsquos most popular restaurants, eateries, and food trucks. Every year, Outside Lands announces well in advance which food vendors will be available at the festival so you can plan all the great eats you&rsquoll be having to fuel your weekend. (And, yes, food lineups are a thing.)

Bay to Breakers is an annual footrace held in San Francisco on the third Sunday of May. As the name suggests, this 12k footrace starts on the bayside and runs west through the city to the other side, where breakers (breaking waves) from the Pacific Ocean crash onto Ocean Beach. But Bay to Breakers is more than just a marathon it&rsquos one helluva party. In eclectic tradition, runners come decked out in festive, funny, or just plain silly costumes. We&rsquove seen runners dressed up as unicorns, in animal floaties, as Elvis Presley, traffic cones, Ghostbusters, and fruit&mdashjust to give you some wild ideas. Bars and eateries along the route often have parties on their porches and patios to keep the fun going all the way to the finish line!

SF Pride weekend is the largest LGBT celebration in the nation. Every year, nearly two million people, donning gaudy and elaborate costumes, descend into the small city of San Francisco to let their freak flags fly and fly their pride flags all throughout the city. Saturday kicks off the annual celebration in the Civic Center, where Harvey Milk famously became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office. The Castro, a historically and world-renowned LGBT neighborhood, is at the heart of all the weekend festivities with fun events like Pink Saturday, a can&rsquot-miss block party. While many contingents occur over the weekend, such as the famous Dykes on Bikes, the hallmark of SF Pride will always be the SF Pride Parade. Despite how risqué this wild and colorful parade can be, the prominence of each year&rsquos theme speaks volumes to the world&rsquos current state of affairs. SF Pride is as loud as they are proud&mdashand they&rsquore certainly smart while doing it.

Every year, BottleRock Napa kicks off the summer in the Bay Area with its annual three-day festival in Napa Valley. The perfectly warm weather, remarkable lineup, and amazing food and drinks draw in hundreds of thousands of attendees each year. Napa Valley is one of the best wine countries in the nation, so expect extraordinary wine tastings at BottleRock from throughout the region. Plus, there are more Michelin star restaurants in Napa Valley per capita than any other wine country in the world. It&rsquos no surprise then, that with great wine, there&rsquos great food. Napa&rsquos best restaurants and eateries will serve up some delicious eats at BottleRock to perfectly pair with your favorite glass of wine or craft brew. BottleRock takes wining and dining to a whole new level with this incredible Bay Area festival!

Hardly Strictly Bluegrass is perhaps America&rsquos best free music festival. Held every October in San Francisco&rsquos Golden Gate Park, this festival has had an impressive lineup of bluegrass and country favorites since its inception. Some of SF&rsquos best food vendors are available on the festival grounds, but most attendees like to bring a blanket and have a picnic. While no alcohol is served at the festival and no hard liquor is permitted, festival-goers can bring their own wine and beer. Hardly Strictly Bluegrass strives to be a zero waste festival, so be sure to pick up after yourself!

California Roots Music & Arts Festival is named after its founder&rsquos clothing line, California Roots by Jeff Monser. Held annually in Monterey, this music and art festival features reggae, rock, folk, hip-hop acts, and even live painting onstage. The psychedelic-looking posters have featured past headliners such as Damian and Ziggy Marley, SOJA, 311, Rebelution, Steel Pulse, Tribal Seeds, Nahko, and Medicine for the People, to give you an idea of what&rsquos in store. But California Roots is more than just a music festival it&rsquos a movement inspired by the counterculture of California in the late 1960s. Think good vibes, peace, love, and happiness. Flower children, rejoice.

This annual, two-day music festival is one Bay Area festival you don&rsquot want to miss! Aptly named after Treasure Island, California, where the festival was originally held, Treasure Island Music Festival provides an experience like no other. The lineup certainly doesn&rsquot disappoint with big-name acts like Deadmau5, Azealia Banks, Glass Animals, Purity Ring, James Blake, Outkast, and Duke Dumont. It&rsquos certainly an eclectic mix, but with only two stages, you never have to worry about missing anyone. Bring on the island fever!

Monterey Jazz Festival is&mdashwell, of course, all that jazz. As a winner of our 2017 Fest300 List, the Monterey Jazz Festival is only surpassed by the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival here in the US. And as the longest continuously-running jazz festival in the world, the Monterey Jazz Fest has featured nearly every world-renowned jazz artist at least once. Over the course three days, more than 500 jazz artists perform, many workshops are held, and panel discussions educate attendees on all things jazz.

Twenty-five years ago this week, long-time California Assembly leader Willie Brown won a run-off election to become San Francisco’s first African-American mayor.


The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. [38] The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. [39] The first maritime presence occurred on August 5, 1775, when San Carlos—commanded by Juan Manuel de Ayala—became the first ship to anchor in the bay. [40] The following year, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores), established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. [3]

Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, William Richardson, a naturalized Mexican citizen of English birth, erected the first independent homestead, [41] near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, and Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, and Mexico officially ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war in 1848. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. [42]

The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers (known as "forty-niners", as in "1849"). With their sourdough bread in tow, [44] prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, [45] raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. [46] The promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. [47] Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons, and hotels many were left to rot and some were sunk to establish title to the underwater lot. By 1851, the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870, Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land. Buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. [48]

California was quickly granted statehood in 1850, and the U.S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate and a fort on Alcatraz Island to secure the San Francisco Bay. Silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. [49] With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, and gambling. [50]

Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of Wells Fargo in 1852 and the Bank of California in 1864. Development of the Port of San Francisco and the establishment in 1869 of overland access to the eastern U.S. rail system via the newly completed Pacific Railroad (the construction of which the city only reluctantly helped support [51] ) helped make the Bay Area a center for trade. Catering to the needs and tastes of the growing population, Levi Strauss opened a dry goods business and Domingo Ghirardelli began manufacturing chocolate. Chinese immigrants made the city a polyglot culture, drawn to "Old Gold Mountain", creating the city's Chinatown quarter. In 1870, Asians made up 8% of the population. [52] The first cable cars carried San Franciscans up Clay Street in 1873. The city's sea of Victorian houses began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for Golden Gate Park. San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. The Presidio developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast. [53] By 1890, San Francisco's population approached 300,000, making it the eighth-largest city in the United States at the time. Around 1901, San Francisco was a major city known for its flamboyant style, stately hotels, ostentatious mansions on Nob Hill, and a thriving arts scene. [54] The first North American plague epidemic was the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904. [55]

At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck San Francisco and northern California. As buildings collapsed from the shaking, ruptured gas lines ignited fires that spread across the city and burned out of control for several days. With water mains out of service, the Presidio Artillery Corps attempted to contain the inferno by dynamiting blocks of buildings to create firebreaks. [56] More than three-quarters of the city lay in ruins, including almost all of the downtown core. [30] Contemporary accounts reported that 498 people lost their lives, though modern estimates put the number in the several thousands. [57] More than half of the city's population of 400,000 was left homeless. [58] Refugees settled temporarily in makeshift tent villages in Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, on the beaches, and elsewhere. Many fled permanently to the East Bay.

Rebuilding was rapid and performed on a grand scale. Rejecting calls to completely remake the street grid, San Franciscans opted for speed. [60] Amadeo Giannini's Bank of Italy, later to become Bank of America, provided loans for many of those whose livelihoods had been devastated. The influential San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association or SPUR was founded in 1910 to address the quality of housing after the earthquake. [61] The earthquake hastened development of western neighborhoods that survived the fire, including Pacific Heights, where many of the city's wealthy rebuilt their homes. [62] In turn, the destroyed mansions of Nob Hill became grand hotels. City Hall rose again in splendid Beaux Arts style, and the city celebrated its rebirth at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in 1915. [63]

It was during this period San Francisco built some of its most important infrastructure. Civil Engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy was hired by San Francisco Mayor James Rolph as chief engineer for the city in September 1912 to supervise the construction of the Twin Peaks Reservoir, the Stockton Street Tunnel, the Twin Peaks Tunnel, the San Francisco Municipal Railway, the Auxiliary Water Supply System, and new sewers. San Francisco's streetcar system, of which the J, K, L, M, and N lines survive today, was pushed to completion by O'Shaughnessy between 1915 and 1927. It was the O'Shaughnessy Dam, Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct that would have the largest effect on San Francisco. [64] An abundant water supply enabled San Francisco to develop into the city it has become today.

In ensuing years, the city solidified its standing as a financial capital in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed. [65] Indeed, it was at the height of the Great Depression that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge, completing them in 1936 and 1937, respectively. It was in this period that the island of Alcatraz, a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as Al Capone, and Robert Franklin Stroud, the Birdman of Alcatraz. San Francisco later celebrated its regained grandeur with a World's fair, the Golden Gate International Exposition in 1939–40, creating Treasure Island in the middle of the bay to house it. [ citation needed ]

During World War II, the Hunters Point Naval Shipyard became a hub of activity, and Fort Mason became the primary port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater of Operations. [31] The explosion of jobs drew many people, especially African Americans from the South, to the area. After the end of the war, many military personnel returning from service abroad and civilians who had originally come to work decided to stay. The United Nations Charter creating the United Nations was drafted and signed in San Francisco in 1945 and, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco re-established peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers. [66]

Urban planning projects in the 1950s and 1960s involved widespread destruction and redevelopment of west-side neighborhoods and the construction of new freeways, of which only a series of short segments were built before being halted by citizen-led opposition. [67] The onset of containerization made San Francisco's small piers obsolete, and cargo activity moved to the larger Port of Oakland. [68] The city began to lose industrial jobs and turned to tourism as the most important segment of its economy. [69] The suburbs experienced rapid growth, and San Francisco underwent significant demographic change, as large segments of the white population left the city, supplanted by an increasing wave of immigration from Asia and Latin America. [70] [71] From 1950 to 1980, the city lost over 10 percent of its population.

Over this period, San Francisco became a magnet for America's counterculture. Beat Generation writers fueled the San Francisco Renaissance and centered on the North Beach neighborhood in the 1950s. [72] Hippies flocked to Haight-Ashbury in the 1960s, reaching a peak with the 1967 Summer of Love. [73] In 1974, the Zebra murders left at least 16 people dead. [74] In the 1970s, the city became a center of the gay rights movement, with the emergence of The Castro as an urban gay village, the election of Harvey Milk to the Board of Supervisors, and his assassination, along with that of Mayor George Moscone, in 1978. [75]

Bank of America completed 555 California Street in 1969 and the Transamerica Pyramid was completed in 1972, [76] igniting a wave of "Manhattanization" that lasted until the late 1980s, a period of extensive high-rise development downtown. [77] The 1980s also saw a dramatic increase in the number of homeless people in the city, an issue that remains today, despite many attempts to address it. [78] The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused destruction and loss of life throughout the Bay Area. In San Francisco, the quake severely damaged structures in the Marina and South of Market districts and precipitated the demolition of the damaged Embarcadero Freeway and much of the damaged Central Freeway, allowing the city to reclaim The Embarcadero as its historic downtown waterfront and revitalizing the Hayes Valley neighborhood. [ citation needed ]

Two recent decades have seen two booms driven by the internet industry. First was the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, startup companies invigorated the San Francisco economy. Large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer application developers moved into the city, followed by marketing, design, and sales professionals, changing the social landscape as once-poorer neighborhoods became increasingly gentrified. [79] Demand for new housing and office space ignited a second wave of high-rise development, this time in the South of Market district. [80] By 2000, the city's population reached new highs, surpassing the previous record set in 1950. When the bubble burst in 2001, many of these companies folded and their employees were laid off. Yet high technology and entrepreneurship remain mainstays of the San Francisco economy. By the mid-2000s (decade), the social media boom had begun, with San Francisco becoming a popular location for tech offices and a common place to live for people employed in Silicon Valley companies such as Apple and Google. [81]

San Francisco is located on the West Coast of the United States at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula and includes significant stretches of the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay within its boundaries. Several picturesque islands—Alcatraz, Treasure Island and the adjacent Yerba Buena Island, and small portions of Alameda Island, Red Rock Island, and Angel Island—are part of the city. Also included are the uninhabited Farallon Islands, 27 miles (43 km) offshore in the Pacific Ocean. The mainland within the city limits roughly forms a "seven-by-seven-mile square", a common local colloquialism referring to the city's shape, though its total area, including water, is nearly 232 square miles (600 km 2 ).

There are more than 50 hills within the city limits. [82] Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including Nob Hill, Potrero Hill, and Russian Hill. Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. Twin Peaks, a pair of hills forming one of the city's highest points, forms an overlook spot. San Francisco's tallest hill, Mount Davidson, is 928 feet (283 m) high and is capped with a 103-foot (31 m) tall cross built in 1934. [83] Dominating this area is Sutro Tower, a large red and white radio and television transmission tower.

The nearby San Andreas and Hayward Faults are responsible for much earthquake activity, although neither physically passes through the city itself. The San Andreas Fault caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city's infrastructure development. The city constructed an auxiliary water supply system and has repeatedly upgraded its building codes, requiring retrofits for older buildings and higher engineering standards for new construction. [84] However, there are still thousands of smaller buildings that remain vulnerable to quake damage. [85] USGS has released the California earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California. [86]

San Francisco's shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. Entire neighborhoods such as the Marina, Mission Bay, and Hunters Point, as well as large sections of the Embarcadero, sit on areas of landfill. Treasure Island was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from the excavation of the Yerba Buena Tunnel through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes. The resulting soil liquefaction causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. [87] Most of the city's natural watercourses, such as Islais Creek and Mission Creek, have been culverted and built over, although the Public Utilities Commission is studying proposals to daylight or restore some creeks. [88]

Cityscape Edit

Neighborhoods Edit

The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by Market Street and the waterfront. It is here that the Financial District is centered, with Union Square, the principal shopping and hotel district, and the Tenderloin nearby. Cable cars carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of Nob Hill, once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of Fisherman's Wharf, and Pier 39, where many restaurants feature Dungeness crab from a still-active fishing industry. Also in this quadrant are Russian Hill, a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked Lombard Street North Beach, the city's Little Italy and the former center of the Beat Generation and Telegraph Hill, which features Coit Tower. Abutting Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's Chinatown, the oldest Chinatown in North America. [89] [90] [91] [92] The South of Market, which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the construction of Oracle Park and an infusion of startup companies. New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. Further development is taking place just to the south in Mission Bay area, a former railroad yard, which now has a second campus of the University of California, San Francisco and Chase Center, which opened in 2019 as the new home of the Golden State Warriors. [93]

West of downtown, across Van Ness Avenue, lies the large Western Addition neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after World War II. The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including Hayes Valley, the Fillmore, and Japantown, which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its Japanese American residents were forcibly removed and interned during World War II. The Western Addition survived the 1906 earthquake with its Victorians largely intact, including the famous "Painted Ladies", standing alongside Alamo Square. To the south, near the geographic center of the city is Haight-Ashbury, famously associated with 1960s hippie culture. [ citation needed ] The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques [94] and a few controversial chain stores, [95] although it still retains some bohemian character.

North of the Western Addition is Pacific Heights, an affluent neighborhood that features the homes built by wealthy San Franciscans in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the Marina, a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay. [96]

In the south-east quadrant of the city is the Mission District—populated in the 19th century by Californios and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from Mexico began to predominate. [97] In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to twenty-something professionals. Noe Valley to the southwest and Bernal Heights to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. East of the Mission is the Potrero Hill neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. West of the Mission, the area historically known as Eureka Valley, now popularly called the Castro, was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. It has become North America's first gay village, and is now the center of gay life in the city. [98] Located near the city's southern border, the Excelsior District is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. The predominantly African American Bayview-Hunters Point in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial urban renewal projects.

The construction of the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1918 connected southwest neighborhoods to downtown via streetcar, hastening the development of West Portal, and nearby affluent Forest Hill and St. Francis Wood. Further west, stretching all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to Golden Gate Park lies the vast Sunset District, a large middle-class area with a predominantly Asian population. [99]

The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the Richmond, also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. Together, these areas are known as The Avenues. These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions.

Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the Ferry Building, while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace.

Climate Edit

San Francisco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) characteristic of California's coast, with moist mild winters and dry summers. [100] San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the cool currents of the Pacific Ocean on the west side of the city, and the water of San Francisco Bay to the north and east. This moderates temperature swings and produces a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation. [ citation needed ]

Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coolest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August. [101] During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the North Pacific High through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's characteristic cool winds and fog. [102] The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall. As a result, the year's warmest month, on average, is September, and on average, October is warmer than July, especially in daytime.

Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates. The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the Sunset District for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year. [ citation needed ]

Temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) on an average of only 21 and 23 days a year at downtown and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), respectively. [103] The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with the normal monthly mean temperature peaking in September at 62.7 °F (17.1 °C). [103] The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with the normal monthly mean temperature reaching its lowest in January at 51.3 °F (10.7 °C). [103] On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages 23.65 inches (601 mm). [103] Variation in precipitation from year to year is high. Above average rain years are often associated with warm El Niño conditions in the Pacific while dry years often occur in cold water La Niña periods. In 2013 (a "La Niña" year), a record low 5.59 in (142 mm) of rainfall was recorded at downtown San Francisco, where records have been kept since 1849. [103] Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to 5 inches (13 cm) fell on Twin Peaks. [104] [105]

The highest recorded temperature at the official National Weather Service downtown observation station [a] was 106 °F (41 °C) on September 1, 2017. [107] The lowest recorded temperature was 27 °F (−3 °C) on December 11, 1932. [108] The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aid [109] graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures.

San Francisco falls under the USDA 10b Plant hardiness zone. [110] [111]

Flora and fauna Edit

Historically, tule elk were present in San Francisco County, based on archeological evidence of elk remains in at least five different Native American shellmounds: at Hunter's Point, Fort Mason, Stevenson Street, Market Street, and Yerba Buena. [116] [117] Perhaps the first historical observer record was from the De Anza Expedition on March 23, 1776. Herbert Eugene Bolton wrote about the expedition camp at Mountain Lake, near the southern end of today's Presidio: "Round about were grazing deer, and scattered here and there were the antlers of large elk." [118] Also, when Richard Henry Dana Jr. visited San Francisco Bay in 1835, he wrote about vast elk herds near the Golden Gate: on December 27 ". we came to anchor near the mouth of the bay, under a high and beautifully sloping hill, upon which herds of hundreds and hundreds of red deer [note: "red deer" is the European term for "elk"], and the stag, with his high branching antlers, were bounding about. ", although it is not clear whether this was the Marin side or the San Francisco side. [119]

Historical population
YearPop. ±%
Source: U.S. Decennial Census, [120] [15] [46] [121] [122]

The U.S. Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population to be 881,549 as of July 1, 2019, with a population density of 18,838/sq mi. [15] With roughly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, San Francisco is the second-most densely populated large American city, behind only New York City among cities greater than 200,000 population, and the fifth-most densely populated U.S. county, following only four of the five New York City boroughs.

San Francisco forms part of the five-county San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 4.7 million people, and has served as its traditional demographic focal point. It is also part of the greater 14-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, whose population is over 9.6 million, making it the fifth-largest in the United States as of 2018. [15]

Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages Edit

San Francisco has a majority minority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940. [52] As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 Whites (48%), 267,915 Asians (33%), 48,870 African Americans (6%), and others. There were 121,744 Hispanics or Latinos of any race (15%).

In 2010, residents of Chinese ethnicity constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21% of the population the other Asian groups are Filipinos (5%) and Vietnamese (2%). [123] The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, Sunset District, and Richmond District, whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the Crocker-Amazon (which is contiguous with the Filipino community of Daly City, which has one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in SoMa. [123] [124] The Tenderloin District is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon. [123]

The principal Hispanic groups in the city were those of Mexican (7%) and Salvadoran (2%) ancestry. The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the Mission District, Tenderloin District, and Excelsior District. [125] The city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. The population of African Americans in San Francisco is 6% of the city's population. [52] [126] The percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of California. [126] The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of Bayview-Hunters Point, Visitacion Valley, and in the Fillmore District. [125]

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, the largest religious groupings in San Francisco's metropolitan area are Christians (48%), followed by those of no religion (35%), Hindus (5%), Jews (3%), Buddhists (2%), Muslims (1%) and a variety of other religions have smaller followings. According to the same study by the Pew Research Center, about 20% of residents in the area are Protestant, and 25% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. Meanwhile, 10% of the residents in metropolitan San Francisco identify as agnostics, while 5% identify as atheists. [131] [132]

As of 2010 [update] , 55% (411,728) of San Francisco residents spoke only English at home, while 19% (140,302) spoke a variety of Chinese (mostly Taishanese and Cantonese [133] [134] ), 12% (88,147) Spanish, 3% (25,767) Tagalog, and 2% (14,017) Russian. In total, 45% (342,693) of San Francisco's population spoke a language at home other than English. [135]

Ethnic clustering Edit

San Francisco has several prominent Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino ethnic neighborhoods including Chinatown and the Mission District. Research collected on the immigrant clusters in the city show that more than half of the Asian population in San Francisco is either Chinese-born (40.3%) or Philippine-born (13.1%), and of the Mexican population 21% were Mexican-born, meaning these are people who recently immigrated to the United States. [137] Between the years of 1990 and 2000, the number foreign born residents increased from 33% to nearly 40%, [137] During this same time period, the San Francisco Metropolitan area received 850,000 immigrants, ranking third in the United States after Los Angeles and New York. [137]

Education, households, and income Edit

Of all major cities in the United States, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only Seattle. Over 44% of adults have a bachelor's or higher degree. [138] San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's 46.7 square miles (121 km 2 ). [139]

San Francisco has the highest estimated percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15%. [140] San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area. [141]

Income in 2011
Per capita income [142] $46,777
Median household income [143] $72,947
Median family income [144] $87,329

San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income [145] with a 2007 value of $65,519. [126] Median family income is $81,136. [126] An emigration of middle-class families has left the city with a lower proportion of children than any other large American city, [146] with the dog population cited as exceeding the child population of 115,000, in 2018. [147] The city's poverty rate is 12%, lower than the national average. [148] Homelessness has been a chronic problem for San Francisco since the early 1970s. [149] The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city. [150] [151]

There are 345,811 households in the city, out of which: 133,366 households (39%) were individuals, 109,437 (32%) were opposite-sex married couples, 63,577 (18%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,677 (6%) were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 10,384 (3%) were same-sex married couples or partnerships. The average household size was 2.26 the average family size was 3.11. 452,986 people (56%) lived in rental housing units, and 327,985 people (41%) lived in owner-occupied housing units. The median age of the city population is 38 years.

San Francisco "declared itself a sanctuary city in 1989, and city officials strengthened the stance in 2013 with its 'Due Process for All' ordinance. The law declared local authorities could not hold immigrants for immigration officials if they had no violent felonies on their records and did not currently face charges." [152] The city issues a Resident ID Card regardless of the applicant's immigration status. [153]

Homelessness Edit

Homelessness, historically, has been a major problem in the city and remains a growing problem in modern times. [154]

8,035 homeless people were counted in San Francisco's 2019 point-in-time street and shelter count. This was an increase of more than 17% over the 2017 count of 6,858 people. 5,180 of the people were living unsheltered on the streets and in parks. [155] 26% of respondents in the 2019 count identified job loss as the primary cause of their homelessness, 18% cited alcohol or drug use, and 13% cited being evicted from their residence. [155] The city of San Francisco has been dramatically increasing its spending to service the growing population homelessness crisis: spending jumped by $241 million in 2016–17 to total $275 million, compared to a budget of just $34 million the previous year. In 2017–18 the budget for combatting homelessness stood at $305 million. [156] In the 2019–2020 budget year, the city budgeted $368 million for homelessness services. In the propose 2020–2021 budget the city budgeted $850 million for homelessness services. [157]

In January 2018 a United Nations special rapporteur on homelessness, Leilani Farha, stated that she was "completely shocked" by San Francisco's homelessness crisis during a visit to the city. She compared the "deplorable conditions" of the homeless camps she witnessed on San Francisco's streets to those she had seen in Mumbai. [156] In May 2020, San Francisco officially sanctioned homeless encampments. [158]

Crime Edit

In 2011, 50 murders were reported, which is 6.1 per 100,000 people. [159] There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts. [160] The Tenderloin area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. The Tenderloin also sees high rates of drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution. [161] Another area with high crime rates is the Bayview-Hunters Point area. In the first six months of 2015 there were 25 murders compared to 14 in the first six months of 2014. However, the murder rate is still much lower than in past decades. [162] That rate, though, did rise again by the close of 2016. According to the San Francisco Police Department, there were 59 murders in the city in 2016, an annual total that marked a 13.5% increase in the number of homicides (52) from 2015. [163]

During the first half of 2018, human feces on San Francisco sidewalks were the second-most-frequent complaint of city residents, with about 65 calls per day. The city has formed a "poop patrol" to attempt to combat the problem. [164]

Gangs Edit

Several street gangs have operated in the city over the decades, including MS-13, [165] the Sureños and Norteños in the Mission District. [166] In 2008, a MS-13 member killed three family members as they were arriving home in the city's Excelsior District. His victims had no relationship with him, nor did they have any known gang or street crime involvement.

African-American street gangs familiar in other cities, including the Bloods, Crips and their sets, have struggled to establish footholds in San Francisco, [167] while police and prosecutors have been accused of liberally labeling young African-American males as gang members. [168] However, gangs founded in San Francisco with majority Black memberships have made their presence in the city. The gang Westmob, associated with Oakdale Mob and Sunnydale housing project gangs from the southeast area of the city, was involved in a gang war with Hunters Point-based Big Block from 1999 to the 2000s. Its current status of activity is unknown. [169] They claim territory from West Point to Middle Point in the Hunters Point projects. [170] In 2004, a Westmob member fatally shot a SFPD officer and wounded his partner he was sentenced to life without parole in 2007. [171]

Criminal gangs with shotcallers in China, including Triad groups such as the Wo Hop To, have been reported active in San Francisco. [172] In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown, which left 5 people dead and 11 wounded. None of the victims in this attack were gang members. Five members of the Joe Boys gang were arrested and convicted of the crime. [173] In 1990, a gang-related shooting killed one man and wounded six others outside a nightclub near Chinatown. [174] In 1998, six teenagers were shot and wounded at the Chinese Playground a 16-year-old boy was subsequently arrested. [175]

According to academic Rob Wilson, San Francisco is a global city, a status that pre-dated the city's popularity during the California Gold Rush. [176] Such cities are characterized by their ethnic clustering, network of international connectivity, and convergence of technological innovation. [137] Global cities, such as San Francisco, are considered to be complex and require a high level of talent as well as large masses of low wage workers. A divide is created within the city of ethnic, typically lower-class neighborhoods, and expensive ones with newly developed buildings. This in turn creates a population of highly educated, white-collar individuals as well as blue-collar workers, many of whom are immigrants, and who both are drawn to the increasing number of opportunities available. [177] Competition for these opportunities pushes growth and adaptation in world centers. [178]

San Francisco has a diversified service economy, with employment spread across a wide range of professional services, including financial services, tourism, and (increasingly) high technology. [179] In 2016, approximately 27% of workers were employed in professional business services 14% in leisure and hospitality 13% in government services 12% in education and health care 11% in trade, transportation, and utilities and 8% in financial activities. [179] In 2019, GDP in the five-county San Francisco metropolitan area grew 3.8% in real terms to $592 billion. [180] [26] Additionally, in 2019 the 14-county San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland combined statistical area had a GDP of $1.086 trillion, [26] ranking 3rd among CSAs, and ahead of all but 16 countries. As of 2019, San Francisco County was the 7th highest-income county in the United States (among 3,142), with a per capita personal income of $139,405. [24] Marin County, directly to the north over the Golden Gate Bridge, and San Mateo County, directly to the south on the Peninsula, were the 6th and 9th highest-income counties respectively.

The legacy of the California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the West Coast in the early twentieth century. [181] Montgomery Street in the Financial District became known as the "Wall Street of the West", home to the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the Wells Fargo corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct Pacific Coast Stock Exchange. [181] Bank of America, a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at 555 California Street for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks, and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions, [182] six Fortune 500 companies, [183] and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, architecture and design—San Francisco is designated as an Alpha(-) World City. [184] The 2017 Global Financial Centres Index ranked San Francisco as the sixth-most competitive financial center in the world. [185]

Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has diversified away from finance and tourism towards the growing fields of high tech, biotechnology, and medical research. [186] Technology jobs accounted for just 1 percent of San Francisco's economy in 1990, growing to 4 percent in 2010 and an estimated 8 percent by the end of 2013. [187] San Francisco became a center of Internet start-up companies during the dot-com bubble of the 1990s and the subsequent social media boom of the late 2000s (decade). [188] Since 2010, San Francisco proper has attracted an increasing share of venture capital investments as compared to nearby Silicon Valley, attracting 423 financings worth US$4.58 billion in 2013. [189] [190] [191] In 2004, the city approved a payroll tax exemption for biotechnology companies [192] to foster growth in the Mission Bay neighborhood, site of a second campus and hospital of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Mission Bay hosts the UCSF Medical Center, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, and Gladstone Institutes, [193] as well as more than 40 private-sector life sciences companies. [194]

The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 5.6% (31,000+ people) of the city's workforce, followed by UCSF with over 25,000 employees. [195] The largest private-sector employer is Salesforce, with 8,500 employees, as of 2018. [196] Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments, [197] and the number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977. [198] The growth of national big box and formula retail chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission started a publicity campaign in 2004 to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy, [199] and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop, [200] an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters. [201] However, by 2016, San Francisco was rated low by small businesses in a Business Friendliness Survey. [202]

Like many U.S. cities, San Francisco once had a significant manufacturing sector employing nearly 60,000 workers in 1969, but nearly all production left for cheaper locations by the 1980s. [203] As of 2014 [update] , San Francisco has seen a small resurgence in manufacturing, with more than 4,000 manufacturing jobs across 500 companies, doubling since 2011. The city's largest manufacturing employer is Anchor Brewing Company, and the largest by revenue is Timbuk2. [203]

Technology Edit

San Francisco became a hub for technological driven economic growth during the internet boom of the 1990s, and still holds an important position in the world city network today. [137] [178] Intense redevelopment towards the "new economy" makes business more technologically minded. Between the years of 1999 and 2000, the job growth rate was 4.9%, creating over 50,000 jobs in technology firms and internet content production. [137]

In the second technological boom driven by social media in the mid 2000s, San Francisco became a location for companies such as Apple, Google, Facebook and Twitter to base their tech offices and for their employees to live. [204] Since then, tech employment has continued to increase. In 2014, San Francisco's tech employment grew nearly 90% between 2010 and 2014, beating out Silicon Valley's 30% growth rate over the same period. [205]

The tech sector's dominance in the Bay Area is internationally recognized and continues to attract new businesses and young entrepreneurs from all over the globe. [205] San Francisco is now widely considered the most important city in the world for new technology startups. [206] A recent high of 7 billion dollars in venture capital was invested in the region. [205] These startup companies hire well educated individuals looking to work in the tech industry, which helps the city have a well educated citizenry. Over 50% of San Franciscans have a 4-year university degree, thus the city ranks high in terms of its population's educational level. [204]

Tourism and conventions Edit

Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than one out of seven jobs in the city. [186] [207] The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States. [208] More than 25 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2016, adding US$9.96 billion to the economy. [209] With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the Moscone Center, San Francisco is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences. [210]

Some of the most popular tourist attractions in San Francisco noted by the Travel Channel include the Golden Gate Bridge and Alamo Square Park, which is home to the famous "Painted Ladies". Both of these locations were often used as landscape shots for the hit American sitcom Full House. There is also Lombard Street, known for its "crookedness" and extensive views. Tourists also visit Pier 39, which offers dining, shopping, entertainment, and views of the bay, sun-bathing seals, and the famous Alcatraz Island. [211]

San Francisco also offers tourists cultural and unique nightlife in its neighborhoods. [212]

The new Terminal Project at Pier 27 opened September 25, 2014 as a replacement for the old Pier 35. [213] Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico.

A heightened interest in conventioneering in San Francisco, marked by the establishment of convention centers such as Yerba Buena, acted as a feeder into the local tourist economy and resulted in an increase in the hotel industry: "In 1959, the city had fewer than thirty-three hundred first-class hotel rooms by 1970, the number was nine thousand and by 1999, there were more than thirty thousand." [214] The commodification of the Castro District has contributed to San Francisco's tourist economy. [215]

Although the Financial District, Union Square, and Fisherman's Wharf are well known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around central commercial corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second "most walkable" city in the United States by [216] Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafés and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow, 24th Street in Noe Valley, Valencia Street in the Mission, Grant Avenue in North Beach, and Irving Street in the Inner Sunset. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences. [217]

Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled information technology workers from local startups and nearby Silicon Valley has attracted white-collar workers from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco. [218] Many neighborhoods that were once blue-collar, middle, and lower class have been gentrifying, as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the Embarcadero, including the neighborhoods South Beach and Mission Bay. The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation, [219] [220] [221] creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2014 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the highest quality of living of any U.S. city. [222] However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's Central Valley. [223] By June 2, 2015, the median rent was reported to be as high as $4,225. [224] The high cost of living is due in part to restrictive planning laws which limit new residential construction. [225]

The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas, [198] San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which began to accelerate in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in Chinatown throughout the city and has transformed the annual Chinese New Year Parade into the largest event of its kind in its hemisphere. [226] [227]

With the arrival of the "beat" writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the Summer of Love in the Haight-Ashbury district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of liberal activism and of the counterculture that arose at that time. The Democrats and to a lesser extent the Green Party have dominated city politics since the late 1970s, after the last serious Republican challenger for city office lost the 1975 mayoral election by a narrow margin. San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a Republican presidential or senatorial candidate since 1988. [228] In 2007, the city expanded its Medicaid and other indigent medical programs into the Healthy San Francisco program, [229] which subsidizes certain medical services for eligible residents. [230] [231] [232]

San Francisco also has had a very active environmental community. Starting with the founding of the Sierra Club in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit Friends of the Urban Forest in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many global discussions regarding the environment. [233] [234] The 1980 San Francisco Recycling Program was one of the earliest curbside recycling programs. [235] The city's GoSolarSF incentive promotes solar installations and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is rolling out the CleanPowerSF program to sell electricity from local renewable sources. [236] [237] SF Greasecycle is a program to recycle used cooking oil for conversion to biodiesel. [238]

The Sunset Reservoir Solar Project, completed in 2010, installed 24,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010. [239] [240]


San Francisco has long had an LGBT-friendly history. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, Daughters of Bilitis the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States, José Sarria the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, Harvey Milk the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., Mary C. Morgan and the first transgender police commissioner, Theresa Sparks. The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. [ citation needed ] Survey data released in 2015 by Gallup place the proportion of the San Francisco metro area at 6.2%, which is the highest such proportion observed of the 50 most populous metropolitan areas as measured by the polling organization. [241]

One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts San Francisco Pride, one of the largest and oldest pride parades. San Francisco Pride events have been held continuously since 1972. The events are themed and a new theme is created each year. In 2013, over 1.5 million people attended, around 500,000 more than the previous year. [242]

The Folsom Street Fair (FSF) is an annual BDSM and leather subculture street fair that is held in September, capping San Francisco's "Leather Pride Week". [243] It started in 1984 and is California's third-largest single-day, outdoor spectator event and the world's largest leather event and showcase for BDSM products and culture. [244]

Performing arts Edit

San Francisco's War Memorial and Performing Arts Center hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the country. The War Memorial Opera House houses the San Francisco Opera, the second-largest opera company in North America [245] [ citation needed ] as well as the San Francisco Ballet, while the San Francisco Symphony plays in Davies Symphony Hall. Opened in 2013, the SFJAZZ Center hosts jazz performances year round. [ citation needed ]

The Fillmore is a music venue located in the Western Addition. It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s, housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Led Zeppelin and Jefferson Airplane first performed, fostering the San Francisco Sound. [ citation needed ]

San Francisco has a large number of theaters and live performance venues. Local theater companies have been noted for risk taking and innovation. [246] The Tony Award-winning non-profit American Conservatory Theater (A.C.T.) is a member of the national League of Resident Theatres. Other local winners of the Regional Theatre Tony Award include the San Francisco Mime Troupe. [247] San Francisco theaters frequently host pre-Broadway engagements and tryout runs, [248] and some original San Francisco productions have later moved to Broadway. [249]

Museums Edit

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually. [250] SFMOMA closed for renovation and expansion in 2013. The museum reopened on May 14, 2016 with an addition, designed by Snøhetta, that has doubled the museum's size. [251]

The Palace of the Legion of Honor holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its Lincoln Park building modeled after its Parisian namesake. The de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas, while Asian art is housed in the Asian Art Museum. Opposite the de Young stands the California Academy of Sciences, a natural history museum that also hosts the Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. Located on Pier 15 on the Embarcadero, the Exploratorium is an interactive science museum. The Contemporary Jewish Museum is a non-collecting institution that hosts a broad array of temporary exhibitions. On Nob Hill, the Cable Car Museum is a working museum featuring the cable car power house, which drives the cables. [252]

Major League Baseball's San Francisco Giants have played in San Francisco since moving from New York in 1958. The Giants play at Oracle Park, which opened in 2000. [253] The Giants won World Series titles in 2010, 2012, and in 2014. The Giants have boasted such stars as Willie Mays, Willie McCovey and Barry Bonds. In 2012, San Francisco was ranked No. 1 in a study that examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920. [254]

The San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL) began play in 1946 as an All-America Football Conference (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into Candlestick Park in 1971. The team began playing its home games at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara in 2014. [255] [256] The 49ers won five Super Bowl titles between 1982 and 1995.

The San Francisco Warriors played in the NBA from 1962 to 1971, before being renamed the Golden State Warriors prior to the 1971–1972 season in an attempt to present the team as a representation of the whole state of California. [257] The Warriors' arena, Chase Center, is located in San Francisco. [258] They have won six championships, [259] and made five consecutive NBA Finals from 2015 to 2019, winning three of them.

At the collegiate level, the San Francisco Dons compete in NCAA Division I. Bill Russell led the Dons basketball team to NCAA championships in 1955 and 1956. There is also the San Francisco State Gators, who compete in NCAA Division II. [260] Oracle Park hosted the annual Fight Hunger Bowl college football game from 2002 through 2013 before it moved to Santa Clara.

The Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit. [261] The San Francisco Marathon attracts more than 21,000 participants. [262] The Escape from Alcatraz triathlon has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race. [263] The Olympic Club, founded in 1860, is the oldest athletic club in the United States. Its private golf course has hosted the U.S. Open on five occasions. San Francisco hosted the 2013 America's Cup yacht racing competition. [264]

With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes in the city. [265] San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the country. [266] Golden Gate Park has miles of paved and unpaved running trails as well as a golf course and disc golf course. Boating, sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District.

San Francisco also has had Esports teams, such as the Overwatch League's San Francisco Shock. Established in 2017, [267] they won two back-to-back championship titles in 2019 and 2020. [268] [269]

Several of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional Golden Gate National Recreation Area, one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States with over 13 million visitors a year. Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are Ocean Beach, which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant surfing community, and Baker Beach, which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the Presidio, a former military base. Also within the Presidio is Crissy Field, a former airfield that was restored to its natural salt marsh ecosystem. The GGNRA also administers Fort Funston, Lands End, Fort Mason, and Alcatraz. The National Park Service separately administers the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around Aquatic Park. [ citation needed ]

There are more than 220 parks maintained by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department. [270] The largest and best-known city park is Golden Gate Park, [271] which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the Conservatory of Flowers, Japanese Tea Garden and San Francisco Botanical Garden. Lake Merced is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the San Francisco Zoo, a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered. [272] The only park managed by the California State Park system located principally in San Francisco, Candlestick Point was the state's first urban recreation area. [273]

San Francisco is the first city in the U.S. to have a park within a 10-Minute Walk of every resident. [274] [275] It also ranks fifth in the U.S. for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land. [276]

San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a consolidated city-county, a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now San Mateo County. [28] It is the only such consolidation in California. [277] The mayor is also the county executive, and the county Board of Supervisors acts as the city council. The government of San Francisco is a charter city and is constituted of two co-equal branches: the executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service the 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. [278]

The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city. [279] Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone and was later selected by the board to finish the term. In 2011, Ed Lee was selected by the board to finish the term of Gavin Newsom, who resigned to take office as Lieutenant Governor of California. [280] Lee (who won 2 elections to remain mayor) was temporarily replaced by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President London Breed after he died on December 12, 2017. Supervisor Mark Farrell was appointed by the Board of Supervisors to finish Lee's term on January 23, 2018.

Because of its unique city-county status, the local government is able to exercise jurisdiction over certain property outside city limits. San Francisco International Airport, though located in San Mateo County, is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco's largest jail complex (County Jail No. 5) is located in San Mateo County, in an unincorporated area adjacent to San Bruno. San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the Hetch Hetchy Valley and watershed in Yosemite National Park by the Raker Act in 1913. [277]

San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the U.S. Court of Appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank, and the U.S. Mint. Until decommissioning in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the Presidio, Treasure Island, and Hunters Point—a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of Fleet Week. The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the state supreme court and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco. [281]

The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billion, [282] and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States. [283] The City of San Francisco spends more per resident than any city other than Washington D.C, over $10,000 in FY 2015–2016. [283] The city employs around 27,000 workers. [284]

In the United States House of Representatives, San Francisco is split between California's 12th and 14th districts.

Colleges and universities Edit

The University of California, San Francisco is the sole campus of the University of California system entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States [285] and operates the UCSF Medical Center, which ranks as the number one hospital in California and the number 5 in the country. [286] UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government. [287] [288] [289] A 43-acre (17 ha) Mission Bay campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in Parnassus Heights. It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise. [290] All in all, UCSF operates more than 20 facilities across San Francisco. [291] The University of California, Hastings College of the Law, founded in Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution. [292] San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy. [293]

San Francisco State University is part of the California State University system and is located near Lake Merced. [294] The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines. [294] The City College of San Francisco, with its main facility in the Ingleside district, is one of the largest two-year community colleges in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program. [295]

Founded in 1855, the University of San Francisco, a private Jesuit university located on Lone Mountain, is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River. [296] Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the Financial District. With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the Academy of Art University is the largest institute of art and design in the nation. [297] Founded in 1871, the San Francisco Art Institute is the oldest art school west of the Mississippi. [298] The California College of the Arts, located north of Potrero Hill, has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing. [299] The San Francisco Conservatory of Music, the only independent music school on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The California Culinary Academy, associated with the Le Cordon Bleu program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management. California Institute of Integral Studies, founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation.

Primary and secondary schools Edit

Public schools are run by the San Francisco Unified School District as well as the California State Board of Education for some charter schools. Lowell High School, the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi, [300] and the smaller School of the Arts High School are two of San Francisco's magnet schools at the secondary level. Public school students attend schools based on an assignment system rather than neighborhood proximity. [301]

Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 private or parochial schools, compared to a 10% rate nationwide. [302] Nearly 40 of those schools are Catholic schools managed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco. [303]

Early education Edit

San Francisco has nearly 300 preschool programs primarily operated by Head Start, San Francisco Unified School District, private for-profit, private non-profit and family child care providers. [304] All 4-year-old children living in San Francisco are offered universal access to preschool through the Preschool for All program. [305]

The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the San Francisco Chronicle, which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper. [306] The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late Herb Caen, whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The San Francisco Examiner, once the cornerstone of William Randolph Hearst's media empire and the home of Ambrose Bierce, declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership. [307] [308] Sing Tao Daily claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area. [309] SF Weekly is the city's alternative weekly newspaper. San Francisco and 7x7 are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco.

The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest television market [310] and the fourth-largest radio market [311] in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, KCBS, began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. KALW was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. The city's first television station was KPIX, which began broadcasting in 1948.

All major U.S. television networks have affiliates serving the region, with most of them based in the city. CNN, MSNBC, BBC, Al Jazeera America, Russia Today, and CCTV America also have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. Bloomberg West was launched in 2011 from a studio on the Embarcadero and CNBC broadcasts from One Market Plaza since 2015. ESPN uses the local ABC studio for their broadcasting. The regional sports network, Comcast SportsNet Bay Area and its sister station Comcast SportsNet California, are both located in San Francisco. The Pac-12 Network is also based in San Francisco.

Public broadcasting outlets include both a television station and a radio station, both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the Potrero Hill neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to National Public Radio affiliate in the country. [312] Another local broadcaster, KPOO, is an independent, African-American owned and operated noncommercial radio station established in 1971. [313] CNET, founded 1994, and, 1995, are based in San Francisco.

San Francisco-based inventors made important contributions to modern media. During the 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge began recording motion photographically and invented a zoopraxiscope with which to view his recordings. These were the first motion pictures. Then in 1927, Philo Farnsworth's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. This was the first television.

Transportation Edit

Public transportation Edit

Transit is the most used form of transportation every day in San Francisco. Every weekday, more than 560,000 people travel on Muni’s 69 bus routes and more than 140,000 customers ride the Muni Metro light rail system. [314] 32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation for their daily commute to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States. [315] The San Francisco Municipal Railway, primarily known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh-largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006. [316] The system operates a combined light rail and subway system, the Muni Metro, as well as large bus and trolley coach networks. [317] Additionally, it runs a historic streetcar line, which runs on Market Street from Castro Street to Fisherman's Wharf. [317] It also operates the famous cable cars, [317] which have been designated as a National Historic Landmark and are a major tourist attraction. [318]

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), a regional Rapid Transit system, connects San Francisco with the East Bay and San Jose through the underwater Transbay Tube. The line runs under Market Street to Civic Center where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern San Mateo County, to the San Francisco International Airport, and Millbrae. [317]

Another commuter rail system, Caltrain, runs from San Francisco along the San Francisco Peninsula to San Jose. [317] Historically, trains operated by Southern Pacific Lines ran from San Francisco to Los Angeles, via Palo Alto and San Jose.

Amtrak California Thruway Motorcoach runs a shuttle bus from three locations in San Francisco to its station across the bay in Emeryville. [319] Additionally, BART offers connections to San Francisco from Amtrak's stations in Emeryville, Oakland and Richmond, and Caltrain offers connections in San Jose and Santa Clara. Thruway service also runs south to San Luis Obispo with connection to the Pacific Surfliner.

San Francisco Bay Ferry operates from the Ferry Building and Pier 39 to points in Oakland, Alameda, Bay Farm Island, South San Francisco, and north to Vallejo in Solano County. [320] The Golden Gate Ferry is the other ferry operator with service between San Francisco and Marin County. [321] SolTrans runs supplemental bus service between the Ferry Building and Vallejo.

San Francisco was an early adopter of carsharing in America. The non-profit City CarShare opened in 2001. [322] Zipcar closely followed. [323]

To accommodate the large amount of San Francisco citizens who commute to the Silicon Valley daily, employers like Genentech, Google, and Apple have begun to provide private bus transportation for their employees, from San Francisco locations. These buses have quickly become a heated topic of debate within the city, as protesters claim they block bus lanes and delay public buses. [324]

Freeways and roads Edit

In 2014, only 41.3% of residents commuted by driving alone or carpooling in private vehicles in San Francisco, a decline from 48.6% in 2000. [325] There are 1,088 miles of streets in San Francisco with 946 miles of these streets being surface streets, and 59 miles of freeways. [325] Due to its unique geography, and the freeway revolts of the late 1950s, [326] Interstate 80 begins at the approach to the Bay Bridge and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. U.S. Route 101 connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward Silicon Valley. Northward, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets to connect to the Golden Gate Bridge, the only direct automobile link to Marin County and the North Bay.

As part of the retrofitting of the Golden Gate Bridge and installation of a suicide barrier, starting in 2019 the railings on the west side of the pedestrian walkway were replaced with thinner, more flexible slats in order to improve the bridge's aerodynamic tolerance of high wind to 100 mph (161 km/h). Starting in June 2020, reports were received of a loud hum produced by the new railing slats, heard across the city when a strong west wind was blowing. [327]

State Route 1 also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge and bisects the city as the 19th Avenue arterial thoroughfare, joining with Interstate 280 at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues south from San Francisco, and also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the South of Market neighborhood. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, city leaders demolished the Embarcadero Freeway and a portion of the Central Freeway, converting them into street-level boulevards. [326]

State Route 35 enters the city from the south as Skyline Boulevard and terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. State Route 82 enters San Francisco from the south as Mission Street, and terminates shortly thereafter at its junction with 280. The western terminus of the historic transcontinental Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, is in San Francisco's Lincoln Park.

Vision Zero Edit

In 2014, San Francisco committed to Vision Zero, with the goal of ending all traffic fatalities caused by motor vehicles within the city by 2024. [328] San Francisco's Vision Zero plan calls for investing in engineering, enforcement, and education, and focusing on dangerous intersections. In 2013, 25 people were killed by car and truck drivers while walking and biking in the city and 9 car drivers and passengers were killed in collisions. In 2019, 42 people were killed in traffic collisions in San Francisco. [329]

Airports Edit

Though located 13 miles (21 km) south of downtown in unincorporated San Mateo County, San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for United Airlines [330] and Alaska Airlines. [331] SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America. [332] In 2011, SFO was the eighth-busiest airport in the U.S. and the 22nd-busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers. [333]

Located across the bay, Oakland International Airport is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across San Francisco Bay, it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.

Cycling and walking Edit

Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco, with 75,000 residents commuting by bicycle each day. [334] In recent years, the city has installed better cycling infrastructure such as protected bike lanes and parking racks. [335] Bay Wheels, previously named Bay Area Bike Share at inception, launched in August 2013 with 700 bikes in downtown San Francisco, selected cities in the East Bay, and San Jose. The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and Bay Area Air Quality Management District are responsible for the operation with management provided by Motivate. [336] A major expansion started in 2017, along with a rebranding as Ford GoBike the company received its current name in 2019. [337] Pedestrian traffic is also widespread. In 2015, Walk Score ranked San Francisco the second-most walkable city in the United States. [338] [339] [340]

San Francisco has significantly higher rates of pedestrian and bicyclist traffic deaths than the United States on average. In 2013, 21 pedestrians were killed in vehicle collisions, the highest since 2001, [341] which is 2.5 deaths per 100,000 population – 70% higher than the national average of 1.5. [342]

Cycling is becoming increasingly popular in the city. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA) in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts. [343] In 2008, the MTA estimated that about 128,000 trips were made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips. [344] As of 2019, 2.6% of the city's streets have protected bike lanes, with 28 miles of protected bike lanes in the city. [314] Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the League of American Bicyclists. [345]

Law enforcement Edit

The San Francisco Police Department was founded in 1849. [346] The portions of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area located within the city, including the Presidio and Ocean Beach, are patrolled by the United States Park Police.

The San Francisco Fire Department provides both fire suppression and emergency medical services to the city. [347]

The city operates 22 public "pit stop" toilets. [164]

Needle exchange Edit

To prevent the spread of diseases from needles, the city gives away 400,000 free syringes every month. Only 60% are ever returned. Some end up as potentially dangerous litter. [348]

San Francisco has several nicknames, including "The City by the Bay", "Golden Gate City", [349] "Frisco", "SF", "San Fran", and "Fog City" as well as older ones like "The City that Knows How", "Baghdad by the Bay", "The Paris of the West", or, as locals call it, "The City". [1] "San Fran" and "Frisco" are controversial as nicknames among San Francisco residents. [350] [351] [352]

San Francisco participates in the Sister Cities program. [353] A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area. [354]

Pioneering San Francisco Indian restaurant August 1 Five to close on Dec. 20

August 1 Five is named after India’s independence day. The restaurant will close on Dec. 20.

Nina Riggio / Special to The Chronicle Show More Show Less

The interior of August 1 Five in San Francisco. The restaurant will close on Dec. 20.

Nina Riggio / Special to The Chronicle Show More Show Less

Jaclyn Davis serves three tandoori chicken bowls to lunch customers at August 1 Five in January.

Nina Riggio / Special to The Chronicle Show More Show Less

One of San Francisco&rsquos premiere Indian restaurants, August 1 Five, will permanently close on Dec. 20. The restaurant was featured on The Chronicle&rsquos Top 100 Restaurant list, and had a cult following behind its imaginative menu filled with dishes like &ldquoPunjabi-style&rdquo fish and chips, served with chickpeas and curry-chili aioli.

While August 1 Five owner Hetal Shah didn&rsquot disclose a specific reason for the closure in an email sent to The Chronicle, Shah said that since March, when the pandemic first triggered shelter-in-place orders in the Bay Area, her restaurant team has &ldquobeen trying to weather this storm together.&rdquo

In the email, Shah also reflected on the influence that working in the restaurant industry has on so may people in the United States.

&ldquoI truly believe that this industry plays a pivotal role in shaping the youth and immigrant population of this country, and some fortunate ones like me walk away with a treasure chest full of lifelong lessons of humility, learning what it truly takes to hustle, and most importantly the art of kindness,&rdquo Shah said in the email.

August 1 Five joins a growing list of prominent San Francisco restaurants to close their doors over the last few weeks as COVID-9 cases increase, both permanently and for hibernation periods, while local and state officials further tighten dining restrictions to curb the spread of the virus.

Pros Spill 6 Tips for Planning the Ultimate Beer Festival

Oktoberfest may be coming to an end, but the craft beer festival season is still in full swing. The rise of craft breweries — which have seen double-digit growth in eight of the last 10 years — shows no signs of slowing. Neither does the increase in new beer festivals.

And why should it? We saw the number of beer events rise 86% last year , after rising 59% in 2014. It’s reached the point where cities like Tampa, San Francisco, and San Diego are even investing in “beer tourism.”

But with increased demand comes increased competition. To help make your beer fest stand out, we talked to industry pros from across the country. Here are their secrets to hosting a successful beer festival that keeps people coming back year after year:

“Craft beer” means different things to different people, and different crowds have different expectations of what a beer fest should be. To give beer-lovers a great experience, you need to decide who you want to target and get to know what they’re looking for.

For instance, Russell Smithson, who kills it as Lagunitas ’ “events executioner,” says “In the Northwest, craft beer has been a thing a lot longer. If we bring our IPA we aren’t going to get the same response as if we bring a barrel-aged High-Westified Coffee Stout served with a scoop of free-range vanilla ice-cream.”

But, he adds, “In emerging markets, our IPA is our most popular beer.”

“Millennials are the ‘Coachella generation’ they’re one-upping every experience and motivated by FOMO (fear of missing out),” says Cameron Collins, founder of Brew Ha Ha , which puts on beer fests in Orange County, Calif. He keeps that in mind and provides Instagram- or Snapchat-worthy games and attractions.

Smithson helps put on a Beer Circus at the brewery every year — aerialists, fire-breathers, carnival games, and “a lot of elements that will leave you with a big smile on your face.” It’s been so successful that it’s spreading to three new cities this year.

He also recommends seeking out bands that are legit but not yet huge. “Just like with beer, you want to create a sense of discovery and be a tastemaker you have the opportunity to introduce people to great music, great beer, and take them on a journey with us,” he says. A great show gives attendees one more thing to share and talk about with their friends — even if they’re not beer fanatics — drumming up excitement for future days or years of the festival.

We’ve heard more and more beer fest organizers say that the food was the most-praised (or grumbled about) item at their event. So don’t underestimate its importance.

Besides, says Dave McLean, president of the San Francisco Brewers Guild , “providing food is the responsible thing to do when you have a group of people tasting beer for hours.” He recommends working with local restaurants or food trucks to emphasize your connection to the local community.

Collins says he particularly loves food trucks for events because they carry their own health department permits. Erin Morrissey, event project manager at Sierra Nevada , recommends finding a local “food truck wrangler” who knows the scene and has the connections.

4. Location, location, location

There’s a lot to consider here. The ground: Collins prefers grass (glass won’t break and it’s easier on the feet). The access: Smithson cautions to pay attention to whether you can pull a truck right up to the event space or not. The public transportation: “If it’s a site without a lot of access, remember to build in the cost of shuttle buses to get people there,” says Morrissey. And a unique enough location can help you stand out from the other beer-themed events.

5. Stock up on beer and ice

The Brewers Association’s events committee recommends overestimating the amount of beer to bring — but not by too much. They also advise getting more ice than you think you’ll need, and then a bit more.

As if warm beer isn’t punishment enough, “when beer gets warm you pour foam,” says Collins. “You’ll end up under-pouring or over-pouring and wasting beer.”

And transporting ice is a feat in itself. For the convenience of the breweries, Collins rents a forklift and drops off ice to each brewer the day of, rather than “asking them to carry ice all over an 11-acre park.”

Track everything and you’ll have a much better idea of how much beer and ice you’ll need year.

The way you know it’s a success is when you’re upset that you’re not enjoying the festival as an attendee instead of organizing it, says Collins. Success is about more than a big crowd, and it can take some time to get there.

“Don’t design your event for 5,000 people if you only had 2,500 people last year. It’s better to increase your event by 20% each year and sell out. You shouldn’t plan to make any money until your third year,” Collins says.

Between local alcohol laws, sponsors, pricing, nonprofit partners, and working with breweries, there’s a lot that goes into planning the ultimate beer fest. Download the full Beer Fest Guide here to get your fill of need-to-know info.

AT&T hauling cows, cheese wheels and a giant eyeball to Outside Lands

If there is one thing attendees want more of at San Francisco's annual music and food festival Outside Lands than craft beer, maple bacon doughnuts or flower crowns (and you know, hearing great bands and artists), it's reliable Wi-Fi for sharing all of that on social media.

AT&T is taking on that task with its most ambitious networking infrastructure at an event like this yet.

Before the music starts at Outside Lands

More than 100 AT&T network engineers have been working behind the scenes and on the festival grounds at Golden Gate Park for weeks now to ensure all of the antennas, hotspots and more have been installed and optimized properly.

Golden Gate Park's Polo Fields

AT&T has seen traffic on its network grow exponentially year after year, but the biggest leap will surely be from 2014 to 2015.

Last year, Outside Lands attendees set a data usage record on the AT&T network, consuming nearly five terabytes of data during the three-day (Friday through Sunday) event. That roughly translates to more than 15 million social media posts with photos. Attendees also used more than 241 gigabytes during the peak hour of the festival.

From AT&T Park to Golden Gate Park

Since 2007 (or at least since Apple’s first iPhone debuted, according to AT&T senior engineer Akash Bose), AT&T has experienced a 100,000 percent traffic increase on its network nationwide. At most festivals and sporting events (such as baseball games at the telco’s eponymous ballpark and home of the San Francisco Giants just across town), AT&T has to dedicate more “highways” to boost capacity.

Bose acknowledged Outside Lands is a different animal altogether and probably one of the company’s biggest events to take on. Bose framed this as doubling a normal 10-lane highway to a 20-lane highway to keep all those Instagrammers satisfied.

Cheese Wheels

Outside Lands has grown wildly popular for its star-studded lineup. Past performers have included Sir Paul McCartney, Kanye West and Metallica, just to name a few. This year, headliners include Elton John and The Black Keys.

But this being food trend-crazed San Francisco, the local restaurant and wine lists are just as competitive. Perhaps then it is appropriate that one of AT&T's biggest contributions to Outside Lands is a "cheese wheel."

The Cheese Wheel Antenna

The Cheese Wheel Antenna is able to offer ten times the capacity of a traditional, single-beam antenna.

During a tour of the festival grounds amid setup on Wednesday, I asked AT&T senior engineer Akash Bose why these structures were dubbed as cheese wheels. He replied, "Because they look like cheese wheels."

Cheese comes from cows?

If cheese wasn't enough, AT&T is bringing along cows too.

AT&T is toting along five more Cells on Wheels (COWs), typically identifiable as roving trucks and vans running to temporarily boost cell signals. AT&T is also promising 50 percent more LTE capacity compared to last year.

Traditional cell sites

The network technology AT&T is deploying at the festival this year is equivalent to 13 traditional cell sites. But it’s not doing all of it alone as some of the hardware and back-end network solutions are coming from partners like Ericsson and Cisco.

It feels like someone is watching.

If cheese and cows weren't enough, AT&T is also unleashing a giant eyeball.

Before the security sirens go up, the name really just refers to the spherical shape of the Luneberg Lens antenna, which can be seen in this photo, hiding just off to the side of one of the main music stages in the trees.

That's no moon.

That's no moon -- wait for it -- it's just the Luneberg Lens antenna (a.k.a. the Giant Eyeball), which prompted AT&T to boast it is the first communications provider to deploy it in the wireless space.

The 3D (and near-perfect spherical design save for the base) shape of the Giant Eyeball antenna is meant to help AT&T engineers on the ground at the event distribute data traffic based on the data consumption of the crowd. It’s not quite as powerful as the cheese wheels, which tout 10 times more power than traditional cell sites. But the giant eyeball can offer enough clarity on its own at a rate of nine times better service than traditional cell sites.

Mobile traffic rushing the stage

With the Luneberg in place, AT&T explained, when a headliner is performing at a certain time and thousands of people rush over to the main stage at the same time (therefore bringing more mobile data traffic along with them), engineers can automatically balance data traffic on the antenna and prevent network overloading.

From SxSW and Coachella to Outside Lands

The Giant Eyeball/Luneberg Lens dropped down at the annual South by Southwest tech, film and music conference in Austin earlier this year while the Cheese Wheel antennas were served up at Coachella.

Outside Lands marks the first instance where AT&T has deployed all three of its biggest wireless tools in its arsenal at a single festival.

Next year's Periscope and Snapchat.

Although it will be impossible to know until at least Monday, Bose said AT&T is expecting traffic to grow from five terabytes in 2014 to somewhere between eight and 10 terabytes this year.

With the advent of Periscope and Snapchat (and whatever new social media brand pops up between now and next summer), the nearly doubling annual traffic rate is only sure to continue.

City Lights Brewing

With an incredible excitement, a humbling recognition of the historical significance of the West Side Water Works campus, an acute recognition of Milwaukee's legacy of brewing expertise and a proud sense of stewardship to respect the lore of yesterday and meet challenges of tomorrow, a craft brewery re-launched as "The City Lights Brewing Company."

This Day in Music

  • 1961 - His Latest Flame and Little Sister are recorded by Elvis Presley
  • 1976 - Baby, I Love Your Way is released by Peter Frampton
  • 1977 - Elvis Presley held his final concert in Indianapolis, Indiana
  • 1990 - Nelson (twin sons of Rick Nelson) release their debut album After the Rain, which goes on to sell over 2 million copies due to the popularity of their #1 single Can't Live Without Your Love and Affection (video below)
  • 1999 - Last Kiss by Pearl Jam hits #2 in America

Watch the video: Bacon and Beer Festival In Bakersfield (January 2022).